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Friday, November 25, 2016

Characteristics of DBMS



Traditionally data was organized in file formats. DBMS was all new concepts then and all the research was done to make it to overcome all the deficiencies in traditional style of data management. Modern DBMS has the following characteristics:
  • Real-world entity: Modern DBMS are more realistic and uses real world entities to design its architecture. It uses the behavior and attributes too. For example, a school database may use student as entity and their age as their attribute.
  • Relation-based tables: DBMS allows entities and relations among them to form as tables. This eases the concept of data saving. A user can understand the architecture of database just by looking at table names etc.
  • Isolation of data and application: A database system is entirely different than its data. Where database is said to active entity, data is said to be passive one on which the database works and organizes. DBMS also stores metadata which is data about data, to ease its own process.
  • Less redundancy: DBMS follows rules of normalization, which splits a relation when any of its attributes is having redundancy in values. Following normalization, which itself is a mathematically rich and scientific process, make the entire database to contain as less redundancy as possible.
  • Consistency: DBMS always enjoy the state on consistency where the previous form of data storing applications like file processing does not guarantee this. Consistency is a state where every relation in database remains consistent. There exist methods and techniques, which can detect attempt of leaving database in inconsistent state.
  • Query Language: DBMS is equipped with query language, which makes it more efficient to retrieve and manipulate data. A user can apply as many and different filtering options, as he or she wants. Traditionally it was not possible where file-processing system was used.
  • ACID Properties: DBMS follows the concepts for ACID properties, which stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability. These concepts are applied on transactions, which manipulate data in database. ACID properties maintains database in healthy state in multi-transactional environment and in case of failure.
  • Multiuser and Concurrent Access: DBMS support multi-user environment and allows them to access and manipulate data in parallel. Though there are restrictions on transactions when they attempt to handle same data item, but users are always unaware of them.
  • Multiple views: DBMS offers multiples views for different users. A user who is in sales department will have a different view of database than a person working in production department. This enables user to have a concentrate view of database according to their requirements.
  • Security: Features like multiple views offers security at some extent where users are unable to access data of other users and departments. DBMS offers methods to impose constraints while entering data into database and retrieving data at later stage. DBMS offers many different levels of security features, which enables multiple users to have different view with different features. For example, a user in sales department cannot see data of purchase department is one thing, additionally how much data of sales department he can see, can also be managed. Because DBMS is not saved on disk as traditional file system it is very hard for a thief to break the code.

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM



DATABASE: - Database is the space defined on the media for holding files. It is just like the organisational cabinet where all the information about the organisation is consisted. OR
                        A database is a collection of related information storage, so that it is available to many users for different purpose.

DATABASE SYSTEM: - A database system is an integrated collection of related files, along with details of the interpretation of the data contained therein. OR
                        It is a sophisticated, computerized record keeping system, a repository for a collection of computerized data file. It maintains information and makes that information available on demand. The important advantage of database is to maintain integrity.

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: - A DBMS is a software system that allows access to data contained in a database. The objective of the DBMS is to provide a convenient and effective method of defining, storing and retrieving the information contained in the database. The DBMS is the major software component of a database system. The DBMS is a combination of hardware and software that can be used to set up and monitor a database & can manage the updating and retrieval of database that has been stored in it. The DBMS is an intermediary between the user and the database.



Most DBMS have the following facilities.

(a)              Creating of a file, addition & deletion of the data, modification of data.
(b)             Creation, addition and deletion of entire files.
(c)              Retrieving data collectively or selectively.
(d)             The data stored can be sorted or indexed at the user’s discretion and direction.
(e)              To maintain data integrity and database use.



 

Operating System as Resource Manager

Modern computers consist of processors, memories, timers, disks, mice, network interfaces, printers, and a wide variety of other devices. In the alternative view, the job of the operating system is to provide for an orderly and controlled allocation of the processors, memories, and input/output devices among the various programs competing for them.
When a computer (or network) has multiple users, the need for managing and protecting the memory, input/output devices, and other resources is even greater, since the users might otherwise interface with one another. In addition, users often need to share not only hardware, but information (files, databases, etc.) as well. In short, this view of the operating system holds that its primary task is to keep track of which programs are using which resources, to grant resource requests, to account for usage, and to mediate conflicting requests from different programs and users.

Operating System (OS)

An Operating System (OS) is an interface between a computer user and computer hardware. An operating system is a software which performs all the basic tasks like file management, memory management, process management, handling input and output, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers.
Some popular Operating Systems include Linux, Windows, OS X, VMS, OS/400, AIX, z/OS, etc

Following are some of important functions of an operating System.
  • Memory Management
  • Processor Management
  • Device Management
  • File Management
  • Security
  • Security
  • Networking
  • Error detecting aids
  • Coordination between other software and users

what is Software ?

Software are the set of programs/packages which we can not touch and feel as like hardware(It is device which we can touch and feel). Software provide better communication between computer/PC and user.
Computer software, or simply software, is that part of a computer system that consists of encoded information or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built.


Software is the combination of instructions to perform the specific task.

Types of Software:- In broad Sense software is categories in two

1)System Software:-System software are those software which we can used to control the system and also used for run applications.

Example:-DOS,Unix, Windows etc.


2)Application Software:-Application software are those software which are designed to perform a specific task. It requires a platform to execute i.e. operating system

Example: Tally, Payroll, VLC Media etc.


 

Types of Information System


The "classic" view of Information systems found  in the 1980s was of a pyramid of systems that reflected the hierarchy of the organization, usually transaction processing systems at the bottom of the pyramid, followed by management information systems, decision support systems, and ending with executive information systems at the top. Although the pyramid model remains useful, since it was first formulated a number of new technologies have been developed and new categories of information systems have emerged, some of which no longer fit easily into the original pyramid model.
Some examples of such systems are:
  • data warehouses
  • enterprise resource planning
  • enterprise systems
  • expert systems
  • search engines
  • geographic information system
  • global information system
  • office automation.
A computer(-based) information system is essentially an IS using computer technology to carry out some or all of its planned tasks. The basic components of computer-based information systems are:
  • Hardware- these are the devices like the monitor, processor, printer and keyboard, all of which work together to accept, process, show data and information.
  • Software- are the programs that allow the hardware to process the data.
  • Databases- are the gathering of associated files or tables containing related data.
  • Networks- are a connecting system that allows diverse computers to distribute resources.
  • Procedures- are the commands for combining the components above to process information and produce the preferred output.
The first four components (hardware, software, database, and network) make up what is known as the information technology platform. Information technology workers could then use these components to create information systems that watch over safety measures, risk and the management of data. These actions are known as information technology services.[19]

Components of Information System

The six components that must come together in order to produce an information system are:
  1. Hardware: The term hardware refers to machinery. This category includes the computer itself, which is often referred to as the central processing unit (CPU), and all of its support equipments. Among the support equipments are input and output devices, storage devices and communications devices.
  2. Software: The term software refers to computer programs and the manuals (if any) that support them. Computer programs are machine-readable instructions that direct the circuitry within the hardware parts of the system to function in ways that produce useful information from data. Programs are generally stored on some input / output medium, often a disk or tape.
  3. Data: Data are facts that are used by programs to produce useful information. Like programs, data are generally stored in machine-readable form on disk or tape until the computer needs them.
  4. Procedures: Procedures are the policies that govern the operation of a computer system. "Procedures are to people what software is to hardware" is a common analogy that is used to illustrate the role of procedures in a system.
  5. People: Every system needs people if it is to be useful. Often the most over-looked element of the system are the people, probably the component that most influence the success or failure of information systems. This includes "not only the users, but those who operate and service the computers, those who maintain the data, and those who support the network of computers."
  6. Feedback: it is another component of the IS, that defines that an IS may be provided with a feedback (Although this component isn't necessary to function).
Data is the bridge between hardware and people. This means that the data we collect is only data, until we involve people. At that point, data is now information.

Information System


" A system which assembles, stores, processes and delivers information relevant to an organisation (or to society) in such a way that the information is accessible and useful to those who wish to use it, including managers, staff, clients and citizens. An information system is a human activity (social) system which may or may not involve the use of computer systems"

An information system (IS) is any organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information. More specifically, it is the study of complementary networks that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and distribute data.
"An information system (IS) is a group of components that interact to produce information"
A computer information system is a system composed of people and computers that processes or interprets information. The term is also sometimes used in more restricted senses to refer to only the software used to run a computerized database or to refer to only a computer system.
Information system is an academic study of systems with a specific reference to information and the complementary networks of hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and also distribute data. An emphasis is placed on an Information System having a definitive Boundary, Users, Processors, Stores, Inputs, Outputs and the aforementioned communication networks.
Any specific information system aims to support operations, management and decision-making. An information system is the information and communication technology (ICT) that an organization uses, and also the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes.
Some authors make a clear distinction between information systems, computer systems, and business processes. Information systems typically include an ICT component but are not purely concerned with ICT, focusing instead on the end use of information technology. Information systems are also different from business processes. Information systems help to control the performance of business processes.