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Showing posts from December, 2012

Semaphore

In computer science, a semaphore is a variable or abstract data type that provides a simple but useful abstraction for controlling access by multiple processes to a common resource in a parallel programming or multi user environment. A useful way to think of a semaphore is as a record of how many units of a particular resource are available, coupled with operations to safely (i.e., without race conditions) adjust that record as units are required or become free, and if necessary wait until a unit of the resource becomes available. Semaphores are a useful tool in the prevention of race conditions; however, their use is by no means a guarantee that a program is free from these problems. Semaphores which allow an arbitrary resource count are called counting semaphores, while semaphores which are restricted to the values 0 and 1 (or locked/unlocked, unavailable/available) are called binary semaphores (same functionality that mutexes have). The semaphore concept was invented by Dutch comp…

CUI V/S GUI

CUI and GUI are acronyms that stand for different kinds of user interface systems. These are terms used in reference to computers. CUI stands for Character User Interface while GUI refers to Graphical User Interface. Though both are interfaces and serve the purpose of running the programs, they differ in their features and the control they provide to the user. Here is a brief explanation of the two types of user interface for the help of those who do not know about them.

What is CUI? CUI means you have to take help of a keyboard to type commands to interact with the computer. You can only type text to give commands to the computer as in MS DOS or command prompt. There are no images or graphics on the screen and it is a primitive type of interface. In the beginning, computers had to be operated through this interface and users who have seen it say that they had to contend with a black screen with white text only. In those days, there was no need of a mouse as CUI did not support the us…

Project management

Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing, managing, leading, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals. A project is a temporary endeavor with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or deliverables), undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual (or operations),which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services. In practice, the management of these two systems is often quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring the preconceived constraints. The primary constraints are scope, time, quality and budget. The secondary —and more ambitious—…

Management

Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and bjectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal.Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources andnatural resources. Since organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to 'manage' oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others.

INTERNET

The Internet (or internet) is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (often called TCP/IP, although not all applications use TCP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertextdocuments of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support email. Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to Web site technology, or are res…